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The History of In Vitro Fertilization and Test Tube Baby

The Story of 1st Test Tube Baby (IVF Baby) in Gurgaon

In vitro fertilization (IVF) has brought a revolution in reproductive medicine, giving hope to countless individuals and couples struggling with infertility. The journey from the beginning of IVF to today's advanced procedures is nothing short of a miracle. Let's understand the evolution of IVF technologies, taking a moment to discover their history, achievements, and transformative advances.

Origin of the thought of IVF

To understand the history of IVF, we need to take a look at the important people. William Harvey is one of them. In 1651, he wrote the book Exercitations de Generation Animalium. He studied how deer reproduce. “Everything comes out of an egg,” he said. This means that all animals start with an egg.

About 1,000 years ago, Aristotle suggested in his book "On the Generation of Animals" that humans came from the combination of male and female seeds. However, many experts believe that Harvey's book marked an important shift away from old stories toward a more scientific understanding of how babies are made.

Two decades later, a scientist named Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a new microscope to study human sperm for the first time. At first, he thought they were little parasites.

In the 1770s, Lazzaro Spallanzani showed that frog eggs turn into tadpoles only when they touch semen. This was the first real proof of IVF taking place.

Carl Ernst von Baer discovered that mammals, like dogs, also have eggs. He wrote about his discovery in 1827. People now often call him the father of modern embryology.

Evolution Of IVF Techniques

In 1878, a scientist named Samuel Leopold Schenck conducted thefirst IVF experiment on animals , using rabbits and guinea pigs. One really important thing they discovered was that cells can divide outside the body.

In 1934, scientists Gregory Goodwin Pincus and Ernst Enzmann took eggs and sperm from rabbits and placed them together outside the rabbits' bodies. Although they put the eggs back before they could be fertilized, one rabbit still became pregnant. His work probably gave rise to the term "test-tube baby", which was mentioned in a book by Hermann Rohleder in 1934.

John Rock and Miriam Friedman Menkin thought that human eggs could be fertilized outside the body due to experiments on animals. He worked on this idea for six years and finally succeeded. In 1944, he wrote about his success in a publication.

How IVF Developed Over Time

The story of IVF stretches back centuries, from a time when infertility was shrouded in mystery. Initially, the inability to conceive was often attributed to divine intervention. However, by the 19th century, scientific thought began to take hold. Doctors started investigating the causes of infertility, laying the groundwork for future breakthroughs.

1878: The First Successful Mammalian Embryo Transfer

The concept of IVF first emerged with the work of German biologist Walter Heape. He successfully fertilized sea urchin eggs outside the body, demonstrating the potential for in vitro fertilization.

Early 1900s: Testing IVF At Animals

In the early 1900s, scientists studied hormones and how they affect fertility. The first clinic to help couples suffering from infertility opened in Massachusetts in 1926. Then, in 1934, a scientist named Gregory Pincus conducted similar research with IVF on rabbits but his work was considered controversial and he lost his job at Harvard.

A few years after this incident, the lead researcher of Gregory Pincus named Menkin was allowed by Dr. Rock in New York to continue studying IVF with humans.

In 1951, Dr. Landrum Shuttles at Columbia Hospital in New York conducted experiments similar to those conducted by Rock and Menkin. Then, in 1965, in a hospital in Baltimore, Dr. Jones, together with Dr. Edwards of England, managed to fertilize the first human egg outside the body. Finally, in England in 1968, Dr. Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe used a type of surgery called laparoscopy to take out an egg and fertilize it in the laboratory. He wrote about his findings in the journal Nature in 1969.

1950s - 1960s: Major Evaluations in IVF

The story of IVF today began in 1951 with Min Chueh Chang and Colin Austin. They discovered that sperm requires a special process called capacitation to fertilize an egg. Then, in 1959, scientists made a breakthrough. He successfully helped a rabbit give birth after fertilizing her egg outside her body.

Robert Edwards was the first to succeed in creating rat babies through IVF, but he wanted to do the same for people. A major issue was obtaining human eggs. To solve this problem he got help from Howard and Georgeanna Jones.

In 1968, Edwards met up with Patrick Steptoe and graduate student Barry Bavister. He extracted human eggs from women's bodies using laparoscopic surgery. Then, they fertilized these eggs in a laboratory.

1970s: Attempt IVF With Human For The First Time

In 1973, scientists at Monash University, led by Carl Wood, attempted IVF with humans for the first time. A woman became pregnant, but sadly the pregnancy did not continue. Three years later, Steptoe and Edwards said they had an IVF pregnancy, but it had occurred outside the womb.

Ultrasound became a great help in IVF in 1976. Bernd-Joachim Hackelauer and Manfred Hansmann were able to use it to check how many follicles a woman had and how big they were by scanning her abdomen with a full bladder.

1978s: The First Human Birth from IVF

In 1978, doctors named Steptoe and Edwards helped Leslie Brown have a baby using IVF. From this, Louise Joy Brown was born on July 25, 1978. The birth of Louise Brown, the world's first 'test-tube baby', marks the moment when technologically assisted human reproduction became a reality.

1980s -1990s: IVF Becomes Mainstream

In the early 1980s, IVF changed from an experimental study to a treatment that doctors could use, largely due to a team at Monash University

Firstly, they used a hormone called follicle-stimulating hormone to cause the ovaries to produce more eggs. Then, they started using other hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists to prevent eggs from being released early. She also used birth control pills to plan when to have IVF treatments.

The 1980s saw many innovations in fertility treatment, such as creating the first children from frozen embryos, using donor eggs to create a child, and using ultrasound to guide egg retrieval. They also developed new technologies such as GIFT and ZIFT to help people get pregnant. Also, they began using ultrasound to examine the uterine lining.

In the 1990s, some important advances were made in fertility treatments. In 1991, doctors began using vaginal ultrasound to help place catheters during embryo transfers. Then, in 1992, Gianpiero D. Palermo created a technique called ICSI to help couples who were having trouble getting pregnant due to male infertility. That same year, the first child conceived through MIFT was born, and the second child was born after preimplantation genetic testing.

By the late 1990s, IVF was helping many people become parents, even those with difficult fertility problems. And with new technology things got better. In 1998, they began using 3D ultrasound to help retrieve the eggs during the procedure.

2000s - 2010s: From Frozen Cells to Modern Advances

In 2001 a baby was born when scientists used special tests and froze some cells before birth. The first baby was born in 2005 from a frozen egg donated by a company. Then, in 2015, a special device called AneVivo was approved in Europe. The first child conceived using this device was born in 2016.

A study in Fertility and Sterility found that techniques such as GIFT, ZIFT and MIFT are not as popular as they used to be, with more people opting for IVF instead. There has been an increase in new methods such as Natural Cycle IVF, Mild Stimulation IVF, Invocel, IVM and Augment.

Present Day: IVF Become Very Common

After the 2020s, IVF became increasingly common. Over time, advances in medical technology and increasing awareness have made IVF more accessible and widely accepted. Many couples opt for IVF when other methods of conceiving are not successful. The increase in IVF procedures has led to success stories in helping couples realize their dream of having children. As a result, IVF has become a common solution for individuals and couples facing infertility challenges.


In short, the history of IVF from its early stages to its latest developments shows how much reproductive medicine has advanced. What started as a scientific experiment is now a common treatment. It is giving hope to many people around the world.

Looking ahead, the future of IVF looks bright. Scientists are still working hard to improve it. They want to help as many people as possible have babies safely. Every year, they find new ways to make IVF even better, making it easier for more families to have children.

The IVF journey shows how humans can solve difficult problems through creativity, caring, and never giving up. As we learn more about having children and find new ways to help, more people can have the families they've always wanted.


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Gurgaon's Best IVF Doctor

Dr. Bindu Garg in News

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Most Frequently Asked Questions

Her 42+ years of experience in fertility treatments, expertise in IVF, IUI, and ICSI, high success rates, and patient satisfaction make her the best IVF specialist in Gurgaon.

Dr. Bindu Garg has over 42 years of rich experience in the field of infertility treatment and reproductive medicine.

Dr. Garg specializes in a wide range of fertility treatments including IVF, IUI, ICSI, Egg Freezing, Surrogacy, Cryopreservation, Fertility Workup, Obs-Gyn Treatment, Normal Delivery, C-Section, PCOS, PCOD, Myomectomy, Hysteroscopy, Laparoscopic. Surgery, and much more.

Dr. Bindu Garg is known for her experience, impressive success rates, and high patient satisfaction. She has received many awards, such as the Six Sigma Healthcare Excellence Award, Mahatma Gandhi Samman, Swasth Bharat Samman, India News Award, and 'The Haryana Ratan Award. This makes her an excellent IVF specialist in this field.

Dr. Garg conducts a thorough initial consultation, addressing medical history, discussing concerns, and outlining individualized treatment plans.

Dr. Bindu Garg has a success rate of over 80% in Invitro Fertilization treatment, resulting in positive results for many couples facing fertility challenges.

Yes, Dr. Bindu Garg stays updated with the latest advances in reproductive technology, ensuring that her patients have access to cutting-edge and complete effective treatments.

Dr. Bindu Garg prioritizes patient confidentiality and implements strict measures to protect the sensitive nature of fertility treatments.

Dr. Bindu Garg's Neelkanth Infertility and IVF Hospital provides comprehensive support services, including counseling, educational resources, medical facilities, emergency services, and a compassionate team to guide and care for patients through their fertility journey.

The duration of an IVF cycle varies; it typically takes around 6-8 weeks.

She explores alternative treatments and discusses various options if In vitro fertilization proves unsuccessful, tailoring the approach to each patient's specific circumstances.

She prioritizes open communication, thoroughly discussing potential risks, side effects, and options with her patients before any treatment begins.

IVF Specialist Dr. Bindu Garg carefully evaluates the risks and benefits of multiple embryo transfers, keeping in mind the best interests of both the patient and the potential child.

Yes, she provides fertility preservation options for individuals facing medical treatments that may impact their fertility.

The cost of fertility treatments varies depending on individual treatment plans; you can get detailed cost estimates during the consultation.

She prioritizes accessibility for her patients, providing emergency consultation and support as needed throughout the treatment process.

She ensures comprehensive care and follow-up services after treatment, monitoring the progress of her patients and addressing any concerns that may arise.

Prospective patients can easily schedule a consultation with Dr. Bindu Garg by contacting her hospital through phone, email, or the online appointment booking system on

List Of Best IVF Doctors in Gurgaon - 1. Dr. Bindu Garg. Infertility Specialist, IVF Doctor, Gynecologist, Obstetrician 2. Dr. Anjali Bugga- OB-GYN, Fertility Expert 3. Dr. Nutan Agarwal -Gynecologist, Obstetrician, Infertility Specialist 4. Dr. Meenakshi Dua -OB/GYN, Infertility Doctor 5. Dr. Geeta Baruah-Obs-Gyne, Fertility Expert 6. Dr. Sonu Balhara Ahlawat - Gynecologist, Obstetrician, Infertility Doctor 7. Dr. Alka Kriplani, -OB/GYN, Infertility Specialist 8. Dr. Meenu Handa- Gynecologist, Obstetrician, Fertility Expert 9. Dr Ila Gupta - Obs-Gyne, Infertility Doctor 10. Dr. Alka Gupta -Gynecologist, Obstetrician, Infertility Specialist

Dr. Bindu Garg is highly regarded as the best IVF doctor in Gurgaon. Patient testimonials, success rates, and personal experiences contribute significantly to a doctor's reputation. Dr. Bindu has 4.8 Ratings out of 5 on Google which shows she is the best.